Martial arts

Saya Biki

I recall hearing the term saya biki quite a bit when I began my practice of Iaido at Doshikai.  Eventually, I came to accept that the term referred to the movement of the saya during nukitsuke.  Over time, my perception of saya biki has come to also include the movement of the saya between nukitsuke and kirioroshi as well as the movement of the saya during noto.  These saya movements serve multiple functions and are often integral to being able to properly perform correct waza.  Within the framework of Zen Nippon Kendo Renmei Iai, saya biki and its proper application is fundamental and myriad.  As such,  a narrow examination of saya biki in Ipponme Mae will serve here as indicative of the system in general.

In the scenario presented in the All Japan Kendo Federation English version of Zen Nippon Kendo Renmei Iai, for the kata Ipponme Mae, “Detecting the harmful intention of the person in front of you, forestall it by using the sword tip to cut his/her temple in a horizontal action and then bring the sword downwards from above the head in a vertical action.”  As part of the instruction for the kata, saya biki is noted but never specifically named or explained.  It is only with practice, proper instruction, and correction does the importance of saya biki begin to reveal itself.

At the opening of the kata, the sword is drawn and rotated to cut horizontally across the opponents face at the level of the temple.  This drawing cut is nukitsuke.  Drawing a properly sized sword from the scabbard would be awkward if not impossible without the rearward movement of the left hand.  The drawing motion is two-fold; the sword is drawn from the saya while the saya is simultaneously drawn off the blade.  The long, broad muscles in the back are engaged as the core is thrust forward adding authority to the cut.  The left hand on the saya and the right hand on the tsuka continue in a single movement until the completion of the horizontal cut when they end in unison.  The result is that the saya ends its motion pulled sharply back with the kojiri pointing to the right.

During furikaburi, the sword is raised over the head in a thrusting motion directed behind the left ear and up.  The left hand on the saya moves as one with the right bringing the saya forward to a position in front of the navel and then grasping the tsuka at the level of the chin/ear.  The kata continues with both hands on the tsuka from the completion of furikaburi, through kirioroshi, and into chiburi.  At the completion of the vertical cut, kirioroshi, both hands are on the tsuka.  As chiburi is initiated, the left hand moves to rest flat against the hip where the saya passes through the obi.  The left hand remains there until the end of chiburi.

Iai Goshi is a demonstration of Zanshin or awareness and is a prescribed element of the remainder of the kata.  During noto, sheathing the sword, this awareness is demonstrated through proper saya handling.  The sword is sheathed rather than the sheath being sworded.  The practitioner must be aware of the position of the sword as it is drawn across the top of the left hand between the forefinger and thumb.  As the blade passes over the opening or koiguchi the left hand grasping the saya around and a little past the opening of the saya is moving back along the line of the obi until the tip of the sword falls into the saya opening.  The muscles in the back and chest are engaged in this motion and reverse direction to bring the saya and sword together ending with the tsuba in a position in front of the navel.  The thumb of the left hand comes to rest on the tsuba and the practitioner assumes taito shisei and completes the kata.

Saya biki is integral and persistent throughout this and all of the ZNKR kata.  It is necessary for proper and correct waza and as an expression of awareness and bearing giving balance to motion and allowing a better economy of motion in the performance of kata.

 

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Martial arts

Metsuke in ZNKR Kyuhonme-Soete Zuki

Metsuke as it applies in Iaido is where the eyes focus during kata and the intention expressed in the gaze.   Per the scenario presented in the All Japan Kendo Federation English version of Zen Nippon Kendo Renmei Iai for the kata kyuhonme-soete zuki, “You are walking along, when a person suddenly appears from the left with the intention to attack you.”  The kata begins with three steps starting on the right foot.  The attacker is noticed at the initiation of the second step.  The eyes lead the head and start to turn as the hands take hold of the tsuka and the body begins to turn left towards the attacker.  The third step is only a half step used as a pivot to continue the turn.  The initial cut, a kesa cut from the right shoulder to left abdomen initiated during the turn and is completed when the left foot steps back.  The gaze that initiates the turn and precedes the cut must be strong enough to support the seme or pressure that is being applied on the attacker and focused directly on the imminent threat while still being wide enough to see the entire situation and not give away the intended target.

After the initial cut, the attacker is directly in front with the blade in their gut just above the left hip bone.  Metsuke is still directed forward at the attacker, focused in a wider way on the entire threat while still intense and pressing.   The right foot pivots slightly and steps back half a step into soetezuki no kame with the sword grasped with the left hand between the thumb and forefinger.  This is done with the hand held horizontally along the omote side at a point about midway up the blade.  The hand and sword are parallel to the ground.    Metsuke is still supporting seme which is forward despite the rearward movement.  The sword is then immediately thrust into the attacker’s abdomen as the left foot steps forward past the right.  The motion ends with the blade thrust into the attacker and parallel to the ground at the level of the navel.  Metsuke is still forward on the attacker who is standing with the blade deep in them.

Metsuke and the intention of the act remain with the attacker as the blade is withdrawn   The left hand does not move as the right hand withdrawals the blade first slightly rearward then by raising the right hand to chest height blade rotated over the fingers of the left hand with the point down and the edge facing down and to the right.  At this point Metsuke broadens in focus as it follows the body to the ground.  The gaze should be far away but present to support zanshin.  It remains thus through migi ni hiraite no chiburi, and noto.

Metsuke changes when taito Shisei is assumed.  The gaze is raised back to forward head level and does not change as the three withdrawing steps are taken.

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Reiho

Reiho is often defined as etiquette, respect, or courtesy in English. I have often described it as such when trying to explain the concept to those who do not practice a form of Budo. In his blog, Geoff Salmon defines Reiho as the physical component to Reigi; the Japanese concept translated and defined in English as etiquette. I prefer this definition. Drawing a distinction between the physical components of proper etiquette does not diminish the fact that fundamentally even the smallest acts of Reiho can demonstrate the essence of Reigi.
When understood to be a physical manifestation of etiquette, Reiho can be seen to permeate every aspect of the art of Iaido. The proper layout of a dojo, the correct fit and wear of the practice clothing, how we wear the sword, how we clean the sword, our very hygiene, posture and even the way we place our thumb on the tsuba while wearing the sword are all forms of Reiho. Every action during practice should be approached with the attitude that even in the smallest actions; the total sum of proper etiquette should be expressed.
The most obvious expression of Reiho to the outsider is bowing. This is the classic example for most westerners of Japanese martial etiquette but is rarely understood for what it truly is. The bow as stated earlier when performed with proper humility, respect, and intent can embody all that is true of etiquette in Iaido. The Iaido practitioner who understands etiquette will always bow more deeply to those who are their seniors in the Dojo. They will also hold the bow for an instant longer than those who are more senior. These physical manifestations are not a form of worship, as has been improperly asserted by some, or an act of submission. They are a signal to those who know that this individual is not only ready to receive the teachings imparted in the dojo but that this person takes their practice seriously and has begun the process of internalizing the basic concepts of the art. Budo can be dangerous if practiced without the proper attitude and concentration. Proper demonstration of Reiho is also a signal to others that the practitioner understands the importance of following direction and is unlikely to do things to put others at risk during practice. The bow as an act of correct Reiho will demonstrate correct Iai.
To me, Reiho is also means by which I can demonstrate my sincere gratitude and desire to learn. It is a defining element of my practice which necessitates that I strive to learn and understand more about this complex concept that can be so hard to define. I was once told that the waves on the ocean are not fundamentally different from the ocean as a whole. That the ocean is waving at us all the time. Reiho as a fundamental aspect of the practice of Iaido can demonstrate the very essence of Iaido when performed correctly. From the instant we enter the dojo, with every breath, movement and thought, we strive to demonstrate Reiho and the essence of Iaido.

 

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